Abstract This study focuses on a cohort of adults (40-plus) in rural South Africa to unpack associations between physical health and receipt of social support, and the extent to which these associations were moderated by marital status. We use logistic regression to estimate the odds of having received emotional, physical, or financial support separately for men (N = 2247) and women (N = 2609). Our results suggest having an Activity of Daily Living (ADL) limitation or having at least one chronic condition was not significantly associated with social support receipt for women, but having an ADL limitation was associated with reduced odds of receiving financial support among men. Although marital status was strongly and significantly associated with receipt of social support for both men and women, marital status moderated the relationship between health indicators and social support receipt only for men. Our findings suggest that when men, but not women, experience a marital dissolution and are suffering from a disability or a chronic condition, their networks respond by providing needed social support.