Gómez-Olivé FX, Julia K Rohr, Laura C Roden, Dale E Rae, and Malcolm von Schantz. 11/23/2018. “Associations between sleep parameters, non-communicable diseases, HIV status and medications in older, rural South Africans.” Scientific Reports, 8, 1. Publisher's VersionAbstract
As part of the Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in South Africa (HAALSI), we investigated sleep habits and their interactions with HIV or non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in 5059 participants (median age: 61, interquartile range: 52—71, 54% females). Self-reported sleep duration was 8.2 ± 1.6h, and bed and rise times were 20:48 ± 1:15 and 05:31 ± 1:05 respectively. Ratings of insufficient sleep were associated with older age, lack of formal education, unemployment, and obesity (p < 0.05). Ratings of restless sleep were associated with being older, female, having more education, being unemployed, and single. Hypertension was associated with shorter self-reported sleep duration, poor sleep quality, restless sleep, and periods of stopping breathing during the night (p < 0.05). HIV positive individuals not on antiretroviral treatment (ART) reported more nocturnal awakenings than those on ART (p = 0.029) and HIV negative individuals (p = 0.024), suggesting a negative net effect of untreated infection, but not of ART, on sleep quality. In this cohort, shorter, poor-quality sleep was associated with hypertension, but average self-reported sleep duration was longer than reported in other regions globally. It remains to be determined whether this is particular to this cohort, South Africa in general, or low- to middle-income countries undergoing transition.
Thiago Veiga Jardim, Miles D. Witham, Shafika Abrahams-Gessel, F. Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Stephen Tollman, Lisa Berkman, and Thomas A. Gaziano. 10/12/2018. “Cardiovascular Disease Profile of the Oldest Adults in Rural South Africa: Data from the HAALSI Study (Health and Aging in Africa: Longitudinal Studies of INDEPTH Communities).” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. Publisher's VersionAbstract
{Objectives To characterize the cardiovascular disease (CVD) profile of individuals aged 80 and older in rural South Africa. Design First wave of population-based longitudinal cohort. Setting Agincourt subdistrict (Mpumalanga Province) in rural South Africa. Participants Adults residents (N = 5,059). Measurements In-person interviews were conducted to obtain social, behavioral, economic, and clinical data. Prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, high waist-to-hip ratio, overweight and obesity, high-risk high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, smoking, stroke, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, and heart failure in individuals younger than 65, aged 65 to 79, and aged 80 and older were compared. Associations between self-reported treatments and determinants of hypertension treatment in those aged 80 and older were assessed using multivariable regression. Results Of 5,059 individuals included, 549 (10.8%) were aged 80 and older, and their CVD prevalence was 17.9% (stroke 3.8%, myocardial infarction 0.5%, angina pectoris 13.5%, heart failure 0.7%). Hypertension prevalence in this group was 73.8%, and along with angina pectoris, it increased with age (p<.001), whereas overweight and obesity (46.4%), dyslipidemia (39.1%), and smoking prevalences (3.1%) decreased (p<.001). Hypertension treatment was significantly associated with being aged 80 and older (odds ratio (OR)=1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.14–1.92
Guy Harling, Katherine Ann Morris, Lenore Manderson, Jessica M Perkins, and Lisa F Berkman. 2018. “Age and Gender Differences in Social Network Composition and Social Support Among Older Rural South Africans: Findings From the HAALSI Study.” The Journals of Gerontology: Series B, Pp. gby013. Publisher's Version
Molly S. Rosenberg, Francesc X. Gómez-Olivé, Julia K. Rohr, Kathleen Kahn, and Till W. Bärnighausen. 2018. “Are circumcised men safer sex partners? Findings from the HAALSI cohort in rural South Africa.” PLOS ONE, 13, 8, Pp. 1-10. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Introduction The real-world association between male circumcision and HIV status has important implications for policy and intervention practice. For instance, women may assume that circumcised men are safer sex partners than non-circumcised men and adjust sexual partnering and behavior according to these beliefs. Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is highly efficacious in preventing HIV acquisition in men and this biological efficacy should lead to a negative association between circumcision and HIV. However, behavioral factors such as differential selection into circumcision based on current HIV status or factors associated with future HIV status could reverse the association. Here, we examine how HIV prevalence differs by circumcision status in older adult men in a rural South African community, a non-experimental setting in a time of expanding VMMC access. Methods We analyzed data collected from a population-based sample of 2345 men aged 40 years and older in a rural community served by the Agincourt Health and socio-Demographic Surveillance System site in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. We describe circumcision prevalence and estimate the association between circumcision and laboratory-confirmed HIV status with log-binomial regression models. Results One quarter of older men reported circumcision, with slightly more initiation-based circumcisions (56%) than hospital-based circumcisions (44%). Overall, the evidence did not suggest differences in HIV prevalence between circumcised and uncircumcised men; however, those who reported hospital-based circumcision were more likely to test HIV-positive [PR (95% CI): 1.28 (1.03, 1.59)] while those who reported initiation-based circumcision were less likely to test HIV-positive [PR (95% CI): 0.68 (0.51, 0.90)]. Effects were attenuated, but not reversed after adjustment for key covariates. Conclusions Medically circumcised older men in a rural South African community had higher HIV prevalence than uncircumcised men, suggesting that the effect of selection into circumcision may be stronger than the biological efficacy of circumcision in preventing HIV acquisition. The impression given from circumcision policy and dissemination of prior trial findings that those who are circumcised are safer sex partners may be incorrect in this age group and needs to be countered by interventions, such as educational campaigns.
Jennifer Manne-Goehler, Julia Rohr, Livia Montana, Mark Siedner, Guy Harling, F. Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Pascal Geldsetzer, Ryan Wagner, Lubbe Wiesner, Kathleen Kahn, Stephen Tollman, and Till W. Bärnighausen. 2018. “ART Denial: Results of a Home-Based Study to Validate Self-reported Antiretroviral Use in Rural South Africa.” AIDS and Behavior. Publisher's VersionAbstract
There is increasing interest in home based testing and treatment of HIV to expand access to treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. Such programs rely on self-reported HIV history and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, the accuracy of self-reported ART use in community settings is not well described. In this study, we compared self-reported ART (SR-ART) use in a home based survey against biological exposure to ART (BE-ART), in a population study of older adults in South Africa. Health and Aging in Africa: a Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH community in South Africa (HAALSI) is a cohort of adults aged 40þinspace}+. The baseline home-based interview included self-reported HIV status and ART use. All participants also underwent biological testing for HIV antibodies, viral load and exposure to emtricitabine (FTC) or lamivudine (3TC), which are included in all first-line and second-line ART regimens in the public-sector South African HIV program. We calculated the performance characteristics for SR-ART compared to BE-ART and fit multivariable logistic regression models to identify correlates of invalid SR-ART responses. Of 4560 HAALSI participants with a valid HIV test result available, 1048 (23%) were HIV-positive and 734 [70% of people living with HIV (PLWH)] were biologically validated ART users (BE-ART). The sensitivity of SR-ART use was 64% (95% CI 61–68%) and the specificity was 94% (95% CI 91–96%); the positive predictive value (PPV) was 96% (95% CI 94–98%) and negative predictive value (NPV) was 52% (95% CI 48–56%). We found no sociodemographic predictors of accurate SR-ART use. Over one in three individuals with detectable ART in their blood denied current ART use during a home-based interview. These results demonstrate ongoing stigma related to HIV and its treatment, and have important implications for community health worker programs, clinical programs, and research studies planning community-based ART initiation in the region.
Xavier F Gómez-Olivé, Livia Montana, Ryan G Wagner, Chodziwadziwa W Kabudula, Julia K Rohr, Kathleen Kahn, Till Bärnighausen, Mark Collinson, David Canning, Thomas Gaziano, Joshua A Salomon, Collin F Payne, Alisha Wade, Stephen M Tollman, and Lisa Berkman. 2018. “Cohort Profile: Health and Ageing in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in South Africa (HAALSI).” International Journal of Epidemiology, 47, 3, Pp. 689-690j. Publisher's Version
Collin F Payne, Justine I Davies, Xavier F Gomez-Olive, Katherine J Hands, Kathleen Kahn, Lindsay C Kobayashi, Brent Tipping, Stephen M Tollman, Alisha Wade, and Miles D Witham. 2018. “Cross-sectional relationship between haemoglobin concentration and measures of physical and cognitive function in an older rural South African population.” Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 72, 9, Pp. 796–802. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Background Age cohort differences in haemoglobin concentrations and associations with physical and cognitive performance among populations of lower income and middle-income countries have not previously been described. We examined the association between these factors among older men and women in rural South Africa.Methods We analysed cross-sectional data from a population-based study of rural South African men and women aged 40 and over (n=4499), with data drawn from questionnaire responses, a cognitive battery, objective physical function tests and blood tests. Anaemia was defined as a haemoglobin concentration <12 g/dL for women and <13 g/dL for men. We related haemoglobin concentrations to each of age, grip strength, walk speed and a latent cognitive function z-score for men and women separately. We used unadjusted correlations and linear models to adjust for comorbidities and inflammation.Results In total, 1042 (43.0%) women and 833 (40.1%) men were anaemic. Haemoglobin concentrations were inversely correlated with age for men but not for women; in adjusted analyses, haemoglobin was 0.3 g/dL lower per decade older for men (95% CI 0.2 to 0.4 g/dL). In adjusted analyses, haemoglobin concentration was independently associated with grip strength in women (B=0.391, 95% CI 0.177 to 0.605), but this did not reach significance in men (B=0.266, 95% CI -0.019 to 0.552); no associations were observed between haemoglobin levels and walk speed or cognitive score.Conclusions Anaemia was prevalent in this study population of middle-aged and older, rural South African adults, but in contrast to high-income countries, it was not associated with poor physical or cognitive function. Our findings need to be replicated in other populations.
Pascal Geldsetzer, Maria Vaikath, Ryan Wagner, Julia K Rohr, Livia Montana, Francesc X Gómez-Olivé, Molly S Rosenberg, Jennifer Manne-Goehler, Farrah J Mateen, Collin F Payne, Kathleen Kahn, Stephen M Tollman, Joshua A Salomon, Thomas A Gaziano, Till Bärnighausen, and Lisa F Berkman. 2018. “Depressive Symptoms and their Relation to Age and Chronic diseases among middle-aged and Older Adults in rural South Africa.” The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, Pp. gly145. Publisher's Version
Lindsay C. Kobayashi, Lisa F. Berkman, Ryan G. Wagner, Kathleen Kahn, Stephen Tollman, and S. V. Subramanian. 2018. “Education modifies the relationship between height and cognitive function in a cross-sectional population-based study of older adults in Rural South Africa.” European Journal of Epidemiology. Publisher's VersionAbstract
We aimed to estimate the relationship between height (a measure of early-life cumulative net nutrition) and later-life cognitive function among older rural South African adults, and whether education modified this relationship. Data were from baseline in-person interviews with 5059 adultsþinspace}≥þinspace}40 years in the population-based ``Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in South Africa'' (HAALSI) study in Agincourt sub-district, South Africa, in 2015. Linear regression was used to estimate the relationship between height quintile and latent cognitive function z-score (representing episodic memory, time orientation, and numeracy), with adjustment for life course covariates and a height-by-education interaction. Mean (SD) height was 162.7 (8.9) cm. Nearly half the sample had no formal education (46%; 2307/5059). Mean age- and sex-adjusted cognitive z-scores increased from −þinspace}0.68 (95% CI: −þinspace}0.76 to −þinspace}0.61) in those with no education in the shortest height quintile to 0.62 (95% CI: 0.52–0.71) in those with at least 8 years of education in the tallest height quintile. There was a linear height disparity in cognitive z-scores for those with no formal education (adjusted $\beta$þinspace}=þinspace}0.10; 95% CI: 0.08–0.13 per height quintile), but no height disparity in cognitive z-scores in those with any level of education. Short stature is associated with poor cognitive function and may be a risk factor for cognitive impairment among older adults living in rural South Africa. The height disparity in cognitive function was negated for older adults who had any level of education.
Guy Harling, Jessica M. Perkins, Francesc Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Katherine Morris, Ryan G. Wagner, Livia Montana, Chodziwadziwa W. Kabudula, Till Bärnighausen, Kathleen Kahn, and Lisa Berkman. 2018. “Interviewer-driven Variability in Social Network Reporting: Results from Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community (HAALSI) in South Africa.” Field Methods, 30, 2, Pp. 140-154. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Social network analysis depends on how social ties to others are elicited during interviews, a process easily affected by respondent and interviewer behaviors. We investigate how the number of self-reported important social contacts varied within a single data collection round. Our data come from Health and Aging in Africa: a Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH community (HAALSI), a comprehensive population-based survey of individuals aged 40 years and older conducted over 13 months at the Agincourt health and demographic surveillance site in rural South Africa. As part of HAALSI, interviewers elicited detailed egocentric network data. The average number of contacts reported by the 5,059 respondents both varied significantly across interviewers and fell over time as the data collection progressed, even after adjusting for respondent, interviewer, and respondent–interviewer dyad characteristics. Contact numbers rose substantially after a targeted interviewer intervention. We conclude that checking (and adjusting) for interviewer effects, even within one data collection round, is critical to valid and reliable social network analysis.
Ami R. Moore, Victor Prybutok, Anh Ta, and Foster Amey. 2018. “Personal social networks and health among aging adults in Agincourt, South Africa: A multidimensional approach.” Social Networks, 55, Pp. 142 - 148. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Abstract Personal social networks (SN) affect health and wellbeing. This study used a multidimensional approach of \SN\ and social determinants of health (SDH) to examine the association between \SN\ and self-reported physical health among the aging population of Agincourt, South Africa. We analyzed the composition of personal \SN\ and used a multiple linear regression analysis to examine both network dimensions and \SDH\ that correlate with physical health. Results highlight the complexity and nuances of social relationships. A few recommendations were also made.
Lindsay C. Kobayashi, Sarah Frank, Carlos Riumallo-Herl, David Canning, and Lisa Berkman. 2018. “Socioeconomic gradients in chronic disease risk behaviors in a population-based study of older adults in rural South Africa.” International Journal of Public Health. Publisher's VersionAbstract
To investigate the associations between household wealth, household consumption, and chronic disease risk behaviors among older adults in rural South Africa.
Nikkil Sudharsanan and David Bloom. 2018. “The Demography of Aging in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Chronological versus Functional Perspectives.” In Future Directions for the Demography of Aging: Proceedings of a Workshop, Chapter 11: Pp. 309-338. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Publisher's Version
Collin F. Payne, Alisha Wade, Chodziwadziwa W. Kabudula, Justine I. Davies, Angela Y. Chang, F. Xavier Gomez-Olive, Kathleen Kahn, Lisa F. Berkman, Stephen M. Tollman, Joshua A. Salomon, and Miles D. Witham. 12/28/2017. “Prevalence and correlates of frailty in an older rural African population: findings from the HAALSI cohort study.” BMC Geriatrics, 17, 1, Pp. 293. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Frailty is a key predictor of death and dependency, yet little is known about frailty in sub-Saharan Africa despite rapid population ageing. We describe the prevalence and correlates of phenotypic frailty using data from the Health and Aging in Africa: Longitudinal Studies of an INDEPTH Community cohort.
LC Kobayashi, MM Glymour, K Kahn, Collin F Payne, RG Wagner, Livia Montana, F Mateen, Stephen Tollman, and Lisa F. Berkman. 10/2017. “Childhood deprivation and later-life cognitive function in a population-based study of older rural South Africans.” Social Science & Medicin, 190, Pp. 20-28. Publisher's VersionAbstract
RATIONALE Little research has evaluated the life course drivers of cognitive aging in South Africa. OBJECTIVES We investigated the relationships of self-rated childhood health and father's occupation during childhood with later-life cognitive function score and whether educational attainment mediated these relationships among older South Africans living in a former region of Apartheid-era racial segregation. METHODS Data were from baseline assessments of “Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community” (HAALSI), a population-based study of 5059 men and women aged ≥40 years in 2015 in rural Agincourt sub-district, South Africa. Childhood health, father's occupation during childhood, and years of education were self-reported in study interviews. Cognitive measures assessed time orientation, numeracy, and word recall, which were included in a z-standardized latent cognitive function score variable. Linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, and country of birth were used to estimate the total and direct effects of each childhood risk factor, and the indirect effects mediated by years of education. RESULTS Poor childhood health predicted lower cognitive scores (total effect = −0.28; 95% CI = −0.35, −0.21, versus good); this effect was not mediated by educational attainment. Having a father in a professional job during childhood, while rare (3% of sample), predicted better cognitive scores (total effect = 0.25; 95% CI = 0.10, 0.40, versus unskilled manual labor, 29% of sample). Half of this effect was mediated by educational attainment. Education was linearly associated with later-life cognitive function score (0.09; 95% CI = 0.09, 0.10 per year achieved). CONCLUSION In this post-Apartheid, rural South African context, older adults with poor self-reported childhood health or whose father worked in unskilled manual labor had relatively poor cognitive outcomes. Educational attainment strongly predicted cognitive outcomes, and appeared to be, in part, a mechanism of social stratification in later-life cognitive health in this context.
Jennifer Manne-Goehler, Livia Montana, Francesc Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Julia Rohr, Guy Harling, Ryan G. Wagner, Alisha Wade, Chodziwadziwa W. Kabudula, Pascal Geldsetzer, Kathleen Kahn, Stephen Tollman, Lisa F. Berkman, Till W. Bärnighausen, and Thomas A. Gaziano. 2017. “The ART Advantage: Health Care Utilization for Diabetes and Hypertension in Rural South Africa.” JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 75, 5, Pp. 561-567. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Background: The prevalence of diabetes and hypertension has increased in HIV-positive populations, but there is limited understanding of the role that antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs play in the delivery of services for these conditions. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between ART use and utilization of health care services for diabetes and hypertension.Methods: Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in South Africa is a cohort of 5059 adults. The baseline study collects biomarker-based data on HIV, ART, diabetes, and hypertension and self-reported data on health care utilization. We calculated differences in care utilization for diabetes and hypertension by HIV and ART status and used multivariable logistic regressions to estimate the relationship between ART use and utilization of services for these conditions, controlling for age, sex, body mass index, education, and household wealth quintile.
Sheridan Reiger, Thiago Veiga Jardim, Shafika Abrahams-Gessel, Nigel J. Crowther, Alisha Wade, F. Xavier Gomez-Olive, Joshua Salomon, Stephen Tollman, and Thomas A. Gaziano. 2017. “Awareness, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia in rural South Africa: The HAALSI (Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in South Africa) study.” PLOS ONE, 12, 10, Pp. 1-12. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Dyslipidemia is a primary driver for chronic cardiovascular conditions and there is no comprehensive literature about its management in South Africa. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia in rural South Africa and how they are impacted by different behaviors and non-modifiable factors. To fulfill this objective we recruited for this cohort study adults aged ≥40 years residing in the Agincourt sub-district of Mpumalanga Province. Data collection included socioeconomic and clinical data, anthropometric measures, blood pressure (BP), HIV-status, point-of-care glucose and lipid levels. Framingham CVD Risk Score was ascribed to patients based upon categories for 10 year cardiovascular risk of low (<3%), moderate (≥3% and <15%), high (≥15% and <30%), and very high (≥30%).LDL cholesterol control by risk category was defined according to South African Guidelines. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to identify factors that were significantly associated with dyslipidemia and awareness of dyslipidemia From 5,059 respondents a total of 4247 subjects (83.9%) had their cholesterol levels measured and were included in our analysis. Overall, 67.3% (2860) of these met criteria for dyslipidemia, only 30 (1.05%) were aware of their condition, and only 21 subjects (0.73%) were on treatment. The majority have abnormalities in triglycerides (59.3%). As cardiovascular risk increased the rates of lipid control according to LDL level dropped. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that being overweight was predictive of dyslipidemia (OR 1.76; 95%CI 1.51–2.05, p<0.001) and dyslipidemia awareness (OR 2.58; 95%CI 1.19–5.58; p = 0.017). In conclusion, the very low awareness and treatment of dyslipidemia in this cohort indicate a greater need for systematic screening and education within the population and demonstrate that there are multiple opportunities to allay this burden.
Thomas A Gaziano, Shafika Abrahams-Gessel, Xavier F Gomez-Olive, Alisha Wade, Nigel J Crowther, Sartaj Alam, Jennifer Manne-Goehler, Chodziwadziwa W Kabudula, Ryan Wagner, Julia Rohr, Livia Montana, Kathleen Kahn, Till W Bärnighausen, Lisa F Berkman, and Stephen Tollman. 2017. “Cardiometabolic risk in a population of older adults with multiple co-morbidities in rural south africa: the HAALSI (Health and Aging in Africa: longitudinal studies of INDEPTH communities) study.” BMC Public Health, 17, 1, Pp. 206.Abstract
BACKGROUND: A consequence of the widespread uptake of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is that the older South African population will experience an increase in life expectancy, increasing their risk for cardiometabolic diseases (CMD), and its risk factors. The long-term interactions between HIV infection, treatment, and CMD remain to be elucidated in the African population. The HAALSI cohort was established to investigate the impact of these interactions on CMD morbidity and mortality among middle-aged and older adults. METHODS: We recruited randomly selected adults aged 40 or older residing in the rural Agincourt sub-district in Mpumalanga Province. In-person interviews were conducted to collect baseline household and socioeconomic data, self-reported health, anthropometric measures, blood pressure, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), HbA1c, HIV-status, and point-of-care glucose and lipid levels. RESULTS: Five thousand fifty nine persons (46.4% male) were enrolled with a mean age of 61.7 ± 13.06 years. Waist-to-hip ratio was high for men and women (0.92 ± 0.08 vs. 0.89 ± 0.08), with 70% of women and 44% of men being overweight or obese. Blood pressure was similar for men and women with a combined hypertension prevalence of 58.4% and statistically significant increases were observed with increasing age. High total cholesterol prevalence in women was twice that observed for men (8.5 vs. 4.1%). The prevalence of self-reported CMD conditions was higher among women, except for myocardial infarction, and women had a statistically significantly higher prevalence of angina (10.82 vs. 6.97%) using Rose Criteria. The HIV(-) persons were significantly more likely to have hypertension, diabetes, or be overweight or obese than HIV(+) persons. Approximately 56% of the cohort had at least 2 measured or self-reported clinical co-morbidities, with HIV(+) persons having a consistently lower prevalence of co-morbidities compared to those without HIV. Absolute 10-year risk cardiovascular risk scores ranged from 7.7-9.7% for women and from 12.5-15.3% for men, depending on the risk score equations used. CONCLUSIONS: This cohort has high CMD risk based on both traditional risk factors and novel markers like hsCRP. Longitudinal follow-up of the cohort will allow us to determine the long-term impact of increased lifespan in a population with both high HIV infection and CMD risk.
Thiago Veiga Jardim, Sheridan Reiger, Shafika Abrahams-Gessel, Nigel J Crowther, Alisha Wade, Xavier F Gómez-Olivé, Joshua Salomon, Stephen Tollman, and Thomas A Gaziano. 2017. “Disparities in Management of Cardiovascular Disease in Rural South Africa: Data From the HAALSI Study (Health and Aging in Africa: Longitudinal Studies of International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health Communities).” Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes, 10, 11.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Optimal secondary prevention is critical for the reduction of repeated cardiovascular events, and the control of cardiovascular risk factors in this context is essential. Data on secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in sub-Saharan Africa are needed to inform intervention strategies with a particular focus on local disparities. The aim of this study was to assess CVD management in a rural community in northeast South Africa. METHODS AND RESULTS: We recruited adults aged ≥40 years residing in the Agincourt subdistrict of Mpumalanga province. Data collection included socioeconomic and clinical data, anthropometric measures, blood pressure, human immunodeficiency virus status, and point-of-care glucose and lipid levels. CVD was defined as self-report of myocardial infarction and stroke or angina diagnosed by Rose Criteria. A linear regression model was built to identify variables independently associated with the number of cardiovascular risk factors controlled. Of 5059 subjects, 592 (11.7%) met CVD diagnostic criteria. Angina was reported in 77.0% of these subjects, stroke in 25.2%, and myocardial infarction in 3.7%. Percent controlled of the 5 individual risk factors assessed were as follows: tobacco 92.9%; blood pressure 51.2%; body mass index 33.8%; low-density lipoprotein 31.4%; and waist-to-hip ratio 29.7%. Only 4.4% had all 5 risk factors controlled and 42.4% had ≥3 risk factors controlled. Male sex (β coefficient=0.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.63; P<0.001), absence of physical disability (β coefficient=0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.65; P=0.001), and socioeconomic status (β coefficient=0.10; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.19; P=0.035) were directly associated with the number of risk factors controlled. CONCLUSIONS: Currently, CVD is not being optimally managed in this rural area of South Africa. There are significant disparities in control of CVD risk factors by sex, socioeconomic status, and level of disability. Efforts to improve secondary prevention in this population should be focused on females, subjects from lower socioeconomic status, and those with physical disabilities.
Thiago Veiga Jardim, Sheridan Reiger, Shafika Abrahams-Gessel, Xavier F Gomez-Olive, Ryan G Wagner, Alisha Wade, Till W Bärnighausen, Joshua Salomon, Stephen Tollman, and Thomas A Gaziano. 2017. “Hypertension management in a population of older adults in rural South Africa.” J Hypertens, 35, 6, Pp. 1283-1289.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Assess awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, as an indication of its management, in rural South Africa, especially regarding modifiers of these variables. METHODS: A population-representative sample of adults aged at least 40 years residing in the rural Agincourt subdistrict (Mpumalanga Province) covered by a long-term health and sociodemographic surveillance system was recruited. In-person interviews, physical exams, and dried blood spots were collected. Hypertension awareness, treatment, and control rates were assessed. A regression model was built to identify predictors of those outcomes. RESULTS: The mean age of the 2884 hypertensive participants was 64.1 ± 12.7 years. Hypertension awareness rate was 64.4%, treatment among those aware was 89.3 and 45.8% of those treated were controlled. Considering aware and unaware hypertensives, treatment rate was 49.7% and control 22.8%. In the multivariable regression model, awareness was predicted by female sex, age at least 60 years, higher social economic status, prior cardiovascular disease (CVD), nonimmigrant status, literacy, and physical limitation. Improved control among those treated was predicted by age at least 60 years. Blood pressure control among all hypertensive study participants was predicted by female sex, being HIV-negative, age at least 60 years, nonimmigrant status, and prior CVD. CONCLUSION: High rates of awareness and treatment of hypertension as well as good levels of control were found in this population, probably explained by the long-term surveillance program conducted in the area. Considering the predictors of hypertension management, particular attention should be given to men, residents younger than 60 years, immigrants, and study participants without CVD as these characteristics were predictors of poor outcome.